Memorial icebreaker Ermakпр. Ленина, 90, Мурманск, Мурманская обл., 183038
In Murmansk, near the building of the local history museum is a monument to one of the first icebreaker of the Northern Fleet, to serve in its composition for 64 years. “Ermak”, named after the Russian explorer of Siberia, was the first Arctic icebreaker class. It owes its creation Russian naval commander and oceanographer Admiral […]
In Murmansk, near the building of the local history museum is a monument to one of the first icebreaker of the Northern Fleet, to serve in its composition for 64 years. “Ermak”, named after the Russian explorer of Siberia, was the first Arctic icebreaker class. It owes its creation Russian naval commander and oceanographer Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov. He first proposed the idea of the construction of the icebreaker that would be able to overcome the Arctic ice.
In 1897, the Government allocated funds for the construction of a new sample vessel. Makarov, the head of the special commission, led the development of technical specifications for the construction of the ship. The jury consisted of well-known scientists and engineers. In 1897, it was decided that the construction of the vessel will be engaged in the British shipbuilding company “Armstrong Vitvord and K °”. A month before the expiry of the period prescribed in the contract, “Ermak” was ready for testing, and after a successful audit was submitted to the operation. On the shore of the icebreaker met with local residents, accumulated a crowd at the pier. Playing a military band. In honor of the event welcome reception at the highest level it was organized.
At that time it was a unique ship breaking ice up to two meters. By those standards, he was gigantic. Its length reaches about 96 meters, width – 20 meters, a displacement equal to 7875 tonnes. In 1899, the “Ermak” went on its maiden voyage under the leadership of Makarova. First icebreaker went under the commercial banner, as long as not a part of the Navy.
“Ermak” was able to swim on the ice up to 81 ° 26 ‘north latitude. He rounded Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land. It was some kind of record. Next icebreaker for thirty years he served in the Baltic Sea. With it was mastered the Northern Sea Route, convoys have successfully passed in the ice of the northern seas. Icebreaker moved farther north and broke another record, having won the northern latitude of 83 ° 05 ‘. He participated in the rescue of many ships and expeditions. As part of the Navy participated in many military operations during the Russian-Japanese, First World War and the Great Patriotic War. In 1949, over 50 years of peaceful and military service “Ermak” received an award – the Order of Lenin.
Over the years the North “Ermak” dilapidated. In the early sixties he was found unfit for service, and the question was raised about the fate of veteran ice elements. Murmansk residents advocated for that “Ermak” became a museum of history of conquering the Arctic. The youth of the city initiated a campaign to collect scrap metal, the weight of which would be replaced by the weight of the ship, which was to be written off. However, despite the attempts to preserve the history of the first Arctic icebreaker, it could not be saved. In 1963, he was written off and sent for scrap. In his place, in 1974 came another icebreaker of the same name.
However, the memory of the first Arctic icebreaker “Ermak” still was immortalized for posterity. November 3, 1965 by the wall Regional History Museum of the city of Murmansk building a memorial was erected in memory of the legendary icebreaker “Ermak”. The monument is an ensemble of monumental paintings and mosaic anchor icebreaker “Ermak” at the bottom on a pedestal. The project was designed by the mosaic panel NP Bystryakov. according to his design work was carried out mozaist SA Nikolaev and artist ID Dyachenko in the workshops of the USSR Academy of Arts in Leningrad. Then in Murmansk specialists mounted the web and install it on the museum wall. Mosaic was composed of pieces of smalt. On the panel shows the icebreaker “Ermak”, paving the way to the icy expanses of the Arctic. At the bottom of the granite pedestal mounted three-ton anchor with an almost five-meter chain, which was really withdrawn from this vessel, as well as a memorial plaque made of bronze.
Up until 1997, a monument protected by the state. After the collapse of the USSR the new government has excluded it from the list of protected sites.